Bildung: Freie Schulwahl ist bestes Mittel gegen Chancenungleichheit

Wettbewerb unter Schulen, Schul-Voucer, die jedem Schüler die Möglichkeit geben, die Schule seiner Wahl zu besuchen, das sind zwei Zutaten, die nachweislich dafür sorgen, dass die soziale Ungleichheit bei der Bildung reduziert wird. Besonderd Gary Becker hat sich für School Vouchers stark gemacht und mit Erfolg dafür geworben, Wettbewerb zwischen Schulen und Wahlfreiheit für Schüler einzuführen:

“The opposition to school choice comes mainly from teachers’ unions, school superintendents, school boards, and neighborhoods that fear an influx of undesirable students. All of these groups are worried about losing control, and the teachers and school officials are also disturbed by the prospect of competition. The recent report by the Labor Dept.’s Commission on Work Force Quality, of which I was a member, is silent on the issue of competition among schools because several commissioners were strongly opposed.

Greater choice among public schools is a major step in the right direction, but disadvantaged students should also be allowed to opt for private schools. On the whole, private schools do a better job of educating their pupils, as my colleague at the University of Chicago, Professor James Coleman, has shown in a massive study of public and private high-school education in the U.S. Catholic schools spend much less than big-city public high schools, yet they are more successful – because they are less subject to the political interference that limits disciplinary procedures., and they manage to get parents and the community closely involved.

Although, teachers, school administrators, and many other groups have been adamantly opposed to including private schools in a choice program, a few states have been pioneers in this direction. The Post-Secondary Option Program in Minnesota pays the tuition and other fees of students who elect to receive all or part of their last two years of high-school education at private or public colleges and vocational schools. Last spring, Wisconsin Governor Tommy G. Thompson proposed to pay the tuition to any participating private school for as many as 1,000 low-income elementary school pupils in Milwaukee County.

The Milwaukee plan has he right orientation: It pays only for the private schooling of children from poor families. Means tests determine which families can qualify for various health and housing programs and should determine which pupils get vouchers to attend private schools. Poorer families are most in need of additional options that private schools provide”.

(Becker, The Economics of Life, p.88).