Politikwissenschaft: Die Erklärung politischen Protests

Die Politikwissenschaft hat in den 1980er und 1990er Jahren eine Reihe von Untersuchungen produziert, die unter dem Dach der „political action“ versammelt sind. Darin geht es im Wesentlichen darin, politische Beteiligung und vor allem politischen Protest zu erklären. An dieser Aufgabe versuchen sich politikwissenschaftliche Schwergewichte wie Max Kaase, Samuel J. Barnes, Hans-Dieter Klingemann oder Ronald Inglehart. Letzterer hat in einem der in diesem Kontext entstandenen Sammelbände „Continuities in Political Action“, einen Beitrag mit dem Titel „Political Value Orientation“ veröffentlicht, in dem er versucht, politischen Protest über Werte und formative Prozesse, in denen sich entsprechende Werte bilden, zu erklären. Das Ergebnis, zu dem er gelangt, ist das folgende:

„Long-term predispositions play a major role in shaping political orientations and political behaviour. There is no question that situational factors and external mobilizing factors also play important roles, and the attention that recent literature has directed toward them us well placed. But the fact remains that, in any given situation, certain individuals have internal predispositions that make them vastly more likely to engage in political action than are other individuals. As we have seen, these dispositions are durable characteristics of given persons. Panel survey data demonstrates that given respondents had an enduring tendency to emphasize their materialist or postmaterialist values, that lasted over the period from 1974 to 1979-1981 in our three respective nations. Moreover, the values one held in 1974 were a good predictor of one’s subsequent political preferences and behaviour in the early 1980s. Finally, cohort analysis indicates that relatively materialist or postmaterialist predispositions characterized given birth cohorts in a very stable fashion throughout the period from 1970 to 1986 – and the structure of these differences suggests that they reflect different formative experiences that took place as much as 50 or 60 years ago” (101-102).

Inglehart, Ronald (1990). Political Value Orientations. In: M. Kent Jennings & van Deth, Jan et al. (eds). Continuities in Political Action. Berlin: de Gruyter.