Ökonomie: Spieltheorie und Allozentrismus

Vor einigen Jahren haben Barry J. Nalebutt und Adam M. Brandenburger das Konzept der Ko-Opetition entwickelt. Zunächst ein Hype, so ist es zwischenzeitlich wieder ruhig um das Konzept geworden, vermutlich deshalb, weil Spieltheorie und Betriebswirtschaftslehre eine schwierige Beziehung miteinander führen. Dabei haben sich Nalebutt und Brandenburger bemüht, eine Art Spieltheorie “light” in ihrem Buch, das den kurzen Hype von Co-opetition begründet hat, zu entwickeln. Eines der spannenden Konzepte, das die beiden in diesem Zusammenhang entwickelt haben, ist der Allozentrismus.

“Many people view games egocentrically; they focus on their own position. The insight of game theory is the importance of focusing on others – namely, allocentrism. … To asses your added value you have to put yourself in the other players’ shoes and ask what you bring to them. To understand how a rule affects the play of a game, you have to put yourself in the other players’ shoes to anticipate how they react to your move. To take account of differing perceptions, you have to put yourself in the other players’ shoes and see how they look at the game.

The underlying principle is the same: you have to put yourself in the other players’ shoes. You have to be allocentric. This doesn’t mean you can ignore your own position. The skill lies in putting the two vantage points together: in understanding both the egocentric and the allocentric perspective.

Putting yourself in other players’ shoes does not mean: how would you analyse the game from their perspectives? It means: how would they analyse the game from their perspectives? It means putting yourself in their heads as much as in their shoes.” (Nalebuff & Brandenburger “Co-opetition”, p.59)